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1. Pengertian Survey dan Pengukuran

Survey atau surveying didefinisikan sebagai pengumpulan data yang berhubungan dengan pengukuran permukaan bumi dan digambarkan melalui peta atau digital. Sedangkan pengukuran didefinisakan peralatan dan metode yang berhubungan dengan kelangsungan survey tersebut. jadi, surveying adalah segala sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan pengumpulan data. Mulai dari pengukuran permukaan bumi hingga penggambaran bentuk bumi. Sedangkan pengukuran adalah segala sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan penggunaan alat mulai dari pita ukur hingga pengukuran jarak dengan metode elektro magnetik.
Survey umumnya dilakukan pada bidang datar, yaitu dengan tidak memperhitungkan kelengkungan bumi. Dalam proyek surveying, kelengkungan buminya kecil, jadi pengaruhnya dapat diabaikan, dengan menggunakan perhitungan yang rumusnya disederhanakan. Sedangkan pada proyek yang memiliki jarak jauh, kelengkungan bumi tidak dapat diabaikan, karena keadaan ini termasuk surveying geodesi.

2. Macam-macam Alat Survey dan Pengukuran

A. Peta Topografi

Peta Topografi

a). Pengertian

Peta topografi adalah peta dengan skala tinggi dan detail, dan biasanya menggunakan garis-garis kontur dalam peta modern.

b). Kegunaan

Peta topografi digunakan untuk informasi tentang keadaan, lokasi, jarak, rute perjalanan dan komunikasi. Peta topografi juga menampilkan variasi daerah, tingkat tutupan vegetasi dan perbedaan ketinggian kontur.

B. Kompas Geologi

Kompas Geologi

a). Pengertian

Kompas merupakan alat navigasi penunjuk arah sesuai dengan magnetik bumi secara akurat.

b). Kegunaan

Kompas geologi memiliki banyak kegunaan, diantaranya digunakan untuk mengukur kedudukan suatu unsur struktur geologi, mengukur strike/dip dari kemiringan lapisan batuan, dan tentunya sebagai penunjuk arah.

c). Cara Penggunaan

Dari beberapa sumber, cara menggunakan kompas geologi dilihat dari bagian-bagian utama kompas tersebut. Diantaranya:
  • Jarum Kompas
Jarum kompas selalu menunjuk ke arah kutub utara magnet bumi. Oleh karena itu terjadi penyimpangan dengan kutub utara geografi yang biasa disebut deklinasi. Biasanya deklinasi memiliki besaran yang berbeda disetiap tempat. Agar kompas sesuai dengan kutub utara geografi, maka "graduated circle" harusdiputar.
  • Lingkaran Pembagian Derajat
Ada 2 jenis pembagian derajat dalam kompas ini,
  1. Kompas azimut dengan pembagian derajat muali dari 0 derajat di arah utara sampai 360 derajat berlawanan dengan arah jarum jam.
  2. Kompas kwardan memiliki pembagian derajat dari 0 derajat pada utara dan selatan, lalu 90 derajat pada timur dan barat
  • Klinometer
Bagian kompas yang berfungsi mengukur kemiringan suatu lereng. terletak didasar kompas dan biasanya dilengkapi dengan gelembung pengukur horizontal dan skala.

C. Palu Geologi

a). Pengertian

Palu adalah benda yang digunakan untuk memberikan tumbukan pada benda lain. Ada 2 jenis palu yang digunakan dalam survey, yaitu palu geologi sedimen (palu geosedimen) dan palu batuan beku.

b). Kegunaan

  • Palu Geosedimen
    Palu geosedimen, palu geologi
Sesuai namanya, palu ini digunakan untuk batuan sedimen (berlapis). Hal ini dapat dilihat dari bentuknya yang persegi berguna untuk memecahkan bagian "sampling".
  • Palu Batuan Beku
    Palu batuan beku, palu geologi
Palu ini digunakan untuk batuan neku yang umumnya keras. Ujungnya yang lancip dibuat agar ketika menggunakannya, kekuatan tumbukan terpusat pada ujungnya yang runcing tersebut untuk memecahkan batuan-batuan beku dan mengambil bebatuan yang ingin diamati.

D. LUP

LUP

a). Pengertian

LUP adalah sebuah lensa cembung yang memiliki titik fokus dekat lensanya. Benda yang diamati akan tampak besar karena berada pada titik fokus lup. Bayangan yang dihasilkan bersifat tegak, nyata dan diperbesar.

b). Kegunaan

LUP digunakan untuk mengamati suatu mineral atau fosil kecil, sehingga dibutuhkan lup untuk mengamatinya. Biasanya perbesaran yang dipakai berkisar antara 8 sampai 20.

E. Pita/Tali Ukur

Pita Ukur

a). Kegunaan

Pita atau tali ukur biasanya digunakan untuk mengukur panjang lintasan atau ketebalan suatu lapisan. Pita ini biasanya berbentuk roll agar mudah dibawa

F. Kantong Contoh Batuan

Kantong Contoh Batuan

a). Kegunaan

Kantong contoh batuan atau bisa juga menggunakan kantong plastik digunakan untuk membungkus batuan yang didapat dalam kegiatan survey ini. Contoh batuan setelah dimasukkan kedalam kantong, lalu diberi label agar mudah saat dibedakan. Jika tidak ada kertas label, bisa juga menggunakan spidol permanen.

G. GPS

GPS

a). Pengertian

Global Positioning System atau yang biasa disebut GPS adalah suatu sistem untuk menentukan kordinat letak di permukaan bumi dengan bantuan dari satelit. Sistem ini menggunakan 24 satelit yang mengirimkan gelombang mikro ke bumi, lalu diterima oleh GPS yang ada dibumi.

b). Kegunaan

GPS digunakan untuk menentukan kordinat posisi, kecepatan, arah dan waktu saat survey. GPS juga berguna untuk mengetahui medan lokasi agar kita tidak tersesat.
Jangan lupa membawa batre cadangan ya, bisa berabe kalau tiba-tiba GPS mati ditengah hutan.

H. Larutan HCl

Larutan HCl

a). Pengertian

Asam klorida atau HCl adalah larutan aquatik dari gas hidrogen klorida. Asam klorida termasuk asam kuat yang berbahaya jika diminum, terhirup jika berbentuk gas, dan terkena mata.

b). Kegunaan

Larutan HCL digunakan untuk menguji kadar karbonat dalam batuan, sorting dan determinasi batuan-batuan.
Hati-hati menggunakan larutan ini ya ^^

I. Buku Catatan dan Alat Tulis

Buku catatan

a). Kegunaan

Buku dan alat tulis ini digunakan untuk mencatat semua hasil dari survey yang dilakukan. Mulai dari hasil data ukur, sketsa, deskripsi, letak singkapan dan lain-lain yang perlu dicatat.

J. Kamera

KameraKamera

a). Kegunaan

Kamera digunakan untuk mempublikasikan hasil kegiatan lapangan yang dilakukan, mulai dari lokasi kegiatan, singkapan-singkapan atau bisa juga untuk narsis. Hehehe
Oia, jangan lupa juga bawa baterai cadangan ya ^^

K. Tas Lapangan

Ransel, tas lapangan, backpacker

a). Kegunaan

Tas ini merupakan alat vital yang sangat penting jika ingin melakukan survey. Karena tas ini berguna untuk menaruh semua perlengkapan-perlengkapan yang sudah disebutkan tadi. Tas yang dibawa harus memiliki kapasitas yang cukup besar karena nanti pasti membawa hasil yang dilakukan saat survey.
Kebayang kalau ga bawa tas, pasti ribet dah itu.
SURVEY DAN FUNGSINYA

HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

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But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

Top News Chinaís Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica

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