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Kreatifitas terkadang diartikan sebagai, pelanggaran aturan.
Kreativitas, terkadang, muncul sebagai sesuatu aksi yang dapat tidak tepat waktu, sesuatu yang tidak terduga. Kreativitas dapat dibentuk dengan melatih pengendalian kekuatan otak dengan membebaskan dari suatu “keterikatan”. Tanpa kreativitas maka manusia hanyalah akan menjadi robot yang hidup.

Istilah Berpikir Lateral digunakan oleh Edward de Bono, seorang psikolog dari Malta, sebagai judul bukunya Berpikir Lateral, yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1967. De Bono mendefinisikan berpikir lateral sebagai suatu metoda berpikir yang lebih menitik beratkan kepada perubahan konsep dan persepsi.Berpikir lateral merupakan sebuah landasan bahwa sesuatu tidak harus menjadi jelas dengan segera dan menghasilkan ide yang tidak dapat dihasilkan dengan metoda berpikir tradisional.

Definisi

Sistem tradisional telah mendefiniskan bahwa berpikir yang baik adalah sebagai suatu masalah kemampuan kognitif atau ketrampilan berpikir. Maka kini kita memiliki dua istilah: “kemampuan kognitif” dan “ketrampilan berpikir”. Kemampuan kognitif akan dipengaruhi oleh pola berpikir, atau suatu kumpulan persepsi yang dibentuk dari pengalaman atau pelajaran masa lalu. Ketrampilan berpikir merupakan kemapuan untuk menggunakan kumpulan pola berpikir. Kemudian kemampuan kognitif akan berkembang menjadi berpikir vertikal, sedangkan ketrampilan berpikir akan menjadi berpikir lateral. Dengan meningkatkan kemampuan kedua macam berpkir tersebut maka, seseorang akan dapat menjadi Pemikir yang baik.

Berpikir Lateral dan kreativitas

Ide yang baru merupakan hasil dari berpikir lateral, dan kadang bukan sesuatu yang dapat membantu seseorang, tetapi ketika ide yang bagus ditemukan, biasanya bukan atas hasil yang secara jelas terlihat namun bisa saja muncul sebagai sesuatu yang tidak mungkin dan dimunculkan dalam bentuk humor. Maka ide yang dihasilkan dari dari cara berpikir yang ada, akan disebut sebagai Kreativitas.

Berpikir Lateral sebagai penyempurna cara berpikir

Seperti telah dikemukakan di atas bahwa pemikir harus memiliki kemampuan kognitif dan ketrampilan berpikir. Hal tersebut kemudian akan membentuk seperti sebuah lingkaran setan. Ketika seseorang telah berhasil keluar dari kotak pembatas, berpikir lateral akan telah menunjukkan kerjanya sebagai sebuah mesin pencari, dengan berbagai jalan pada cara berpikir dan ide-ide. Kemudian hal tersebut harus dilanjutkan oleh kemampuan berpikir untuk meneliti hingga ke dalam hingga mencapai hasil. Namun ketika hasil telah didapat, hal itu juga merupakan akhir dari fase kerja kemampuan kognitif yang harus segera dilanjutkan dengan ketrampilan berpikir.

Teknik de Bono dalam berpikir lateral

Wikipedia telah menerangkan mengenai teknk yang digunakan untuk melatih berpikir lateral. Ada beberapa lata mental atau metoda yang dapat digunakan untuk meningjkatkan berpikir lateral. Hal tersebut seperti:
Masukan Acak: Pilih suatu obyek secara acak, bisa kata benda atau kata dari kamus, dan hubungkan dengan sesuatu yang sedang dipikirkan. Metoda ini juga dinamakan sebagai Method_of_focal_objects.
Provokasi: Nyatakan persepsi yang umum diluar batasnya atau gunakan alternatif provokasi terhadap situasi umum yang sedang dibahas. Hal ini akan memancing adanya persepsi baru.
Tantangan: Lakukan tantangan terhadap sesuatu kebiasaan. Hal ini dilakukan tidak untuk menyatakan bahwa cara yang ada sekarang bermasalah tetapi hanya untuk menuntun agar persepsi yang ada terlepas dan membangkitkan adanya persepsi yang baru.

Bagaimana cara meningkatkan ketrampilan berpikir atau berpikir lateral?

Biasanya kekampuan kognitif akan dihasilkan dari sekolahan, kehidupan sehari-hari atau informasi yang dikumpulkan dari berbagai cara. Tetapi ketrampilan berpikir haruslah dari latihan dan kesadaran haruslah tersedia terlebih dahulu sebagai dasarnya. Kesadaran akan melepaskan seseorang dari Kemelekatan, dimana kemelekatan akan membimbing seseorang kepada pola yang tertentu. Ketika seseorang telah berada dalam kondisi yang bebas, maka adanya ide yang baru akan dapat diterima dan dibuka. Dengan menerima ide yang baru atau membuka pola berpikir baru, maka berpikir lateral telah dilatih.

“Berpikir lateral ditandai dengan adanya perpindahan pola berpikir,
dari pola berpikir yang terduga atau yang selaras,
menuju kepada ide yang tidak terduga”

LATERAL THINKING – MENCIPATAKAN IDE & KREASI BARU

WASHINGTON — The former deputy director of the C.I.A. asserts in a forthcoming book that Republicans, in their eagerness to politicize the killing of the American ambassador to Libya, repeatedly distorted the agency’s analysis of events. But he also argues that the C.I.A. should get out of the business of providing “talking points” for administration officials in national security events that quickly become partisan, as happened after the Benghazi attack in 2012.

The official, Michael J. Morell, dismisses the allegation that the United States military and C.I.A. officers “were ordered to stand down and not come to the rescue of their comrades,” and he says there is “no evidence” to support the charge that “there was a conspiracy between C.I.A. and the White House to spin the Benghazi story in a way that would protect the political interests of the president and Secretary Clinton,” referring to the secretary of state at the time, Hillary Rodham Clinton.

But he also concludes that the White House itself embellished some of the talking points provided by the Central Intelligence Agency and had blocked him from sending an internal study of agency conclusions to Congress.

Photo
 
Michael J. Morell Credit Mark Wilson/Getty Images

“I finally did so without asking,” just before leaving government, he writes, and after the White House released internal emails to a committee investigating the State Department’s handling of the issue.

A lengthy congressional investigation remains underway, one that many Republicans hope to use against Mrs. Clinton in the 2016 election cycle.

In parts of the book, “The Great War of Our Time” (Twelve), Mr. Morell praises his C.I.A. colleagues for many successes in stopping terrorist attacks, but he is surprisingly critical of other C.I.A. failings — and those of the National Security Agency.

Soon after Mr. Morell retired in 2013 after 33 years in the agency, President Obama appointed him to a commission reviewing the actions of the National Security Agency after the disclosures of Edward J. Snowden, a former intelligence contractor who released classified documents about the government’s eavesdropping abilities. Mr. Morell writes that he was surprised by what he found.

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“You would have thought that of all the government entities on the planet, the one least vulnerable to such grand theft would have been the N.S.A.,” he writes. “But it turned out that the N.S.A. had left itself vulnerable.”

He concludes that most Wall Street firms had better cybersecurity than the N.S.A. had when Mr. Snowden swept information from its systems in 2013. While he said he found himself “chagrined by how well the N.S.A. was doing” compared with the C.I.A. in stepping up its collection of data on intelligence targets, he also sensed that the N.S.A., which specializes in electronic spying, was operating without considering the implications of its methods.

“The N.S.A. had largely been collecting information because it could, not necessarily in all cases because it should,” he says.

The book is to be released next week.

Mr. Morell was a career analyst who rose through the ranks of the agency, and he ended up in the No. 2 post. He served as President George W. Bush’s personal intelligence briefer in the first months of his presidency — in those days, he could often be spotted at the Starbucks in Waco, Tex., catching up on his reading — and was with him in the schoolhouse in Florida on the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, when the Bush presidency changed in an instant.

Mr. Morell twice took over as acting C.I.A. director, first when Leon E. Panetta was appointed secretary of defense and then when retired Gen. David H. Petraeus resigned over an extramarital affair with his biographer, a relationship that included his handing her classified notes of his time as America’s best-known military commander.

Mr. Morell says he first learned of the affair from Mr. Petraeus only the night before he resigned, and just as the Benghazi events were turning into a political firestorm. While praising Mr. Petraeus, who had told his deputy “I am very lucky” to run the C.I.A., Mr. Morell writes that “the organization did not feel the same way about him.” The former general “created the impression through the tone of his voice and his body language that he did not want people to disagree with him (which was not true in my own interaction with him),” he says.

But it is his account of the Benghazi attacks — and how the C.I.A. was drawn into the debate over whether the Obama White House deliberately distorted its account of the death of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens — that is bound to attract attention, at least partly because of its relevance to the coming presidential election. The initial assessments that the C.I.A. gave to the White House said demonstrations had preceded the attack. By the time analysts reversed their opinion, Susan E. Rice, now the national security adviser, had made a series of statements on Sunday talk shows describing the initial assessment. The controversy and other comments Ms. Rice made derailed Mr. Obama’s plan to appoint her as secretary of state.

The experience prompted Mr. Morell to write that the C.I.A. should stay out of the business of preparing talking points — especially on issues that are being seized upon for “political purposes.” He is critical of the State Department for not beefing up security in Libya for its diplomats, as the C.I.A., he said, did for its employees.

But he concludes that the assault in which the ambassador was killed took place “with little or no advance planning” and “was not well organized.” He says the attackers “did not appear to be looking for Americans to harm. They appeared intent on looting and conducting some vandalism,” setting fires that killed Mr. Stevens and a security official, Sean Smith.

Mr. Morell paints a picture of an agency that was struggling, largely unsuccessfully, to understand dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa when the Arab Spring broke out in late 2011 in Tunisia. The agency’s analysts failed to see the forces of revolution coming — and then failed again, he writes, when they told Mr. Obama that the uprisings would undercut Al Qaeda by showing there was a democratic pathway to change.

“There is no good explanation for our not being able to see the pressures growing to dangerous levels across the region,” he writes. The agency had again relied too heavily “on a handful of strong leaders in the countries of concern to help us understand what was going on in the Arab street,” he says, and those leaders themselves were clueless.

Moreover, an agency that has always overvalued secretly gathered intelligence and undervalued “open source” material “was not doing enough to mine the wealth of information available through social media,” he writes. “We thought and told policy makers that this outburst of popular revolt would damage Al Qaeda by undermining the group’s narrative,” he writes.

Instead, weak governments in Egypt, and the absence of governance from Libya to Yemen, were “a boon to Islamic extremists across both the Middle East and North Africa.”

Mr. Morell is gentle about most of the politicians he dealt with — he expresses admiration for both Mr. Bush and Mr. Obama, though he accuses former Vice President Dick Cheney of deliberately implying a connection between Al Qaeda and Iraq that the C.I.A. had concluded probably did not exist. But when it comes to the events leading up to the Bush administration’s decision to go to war in Iraq, he is critical of his own agency.

Mr. Morell concludes that the Bush White House did not have to twist intelligence on Saddam Hussein’s alleged effort to rekindle the country’s work on weapons of mass destruction.

“The view that hard-liners in the Bush administration forced the intelligence community into its position on W.M.D. is just flat wrong,” he writes. “No one pushed. The analysts were already there and they had been there for years, long before Bush came to office.”

Ex-C.I.A. Official Rebuts Republican Claims on Benghazi Attack in ‘The Great War of Our Time’

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