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Saco- Indonesia.com - Serangan stroke dapat terjadi tiba-tiba, namun tanda-tandanya sebenarnya dapat dideteksi. Para ahli mengatakan, semakin dini stroke dikenali dan diobati, maka semakin besar kemungkinan untuk sembuh dan terhindar dari risiko kelumpuhan.

Mati rasa pada wajah, lengan, kaki di satu sisi tubuh, disertai kebingungan dan masalah berbicara merupakan tanda-tanda seseorang mengalami stroke. Selain itu, ada pula tanda-tanda seperti pusing dan sakit kepala parah, mengalami masalah berjalan, hilang penglihatan di satu atau kedua mata.

Kepala Divisi Stroke di NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center mengatakan, ketika seseorang terkena stroke, mereka akan menunjukkan tanda-tanda perubahan fisik yang dapat dikenali, ringan ataupun ekstrem. 

Berikut adalah beberapa tanda yang perlu diwaspadai :

1. Tiba-tiba mati rasa atau lemah pada bagian wajah, lengan, atau kaki - terutama pada satu sisi tubuh.

Orang dengan stroke biasanya akan memiliki bentuk mulut "tidak rata" alias mencong. Perlu diwaspadai juga apabila mereka (orang yang dicurigai stroke) mengalami kesulitan menggerakkan lengan atau mengendalikan jari. Misalnya, ketika mengangkat kedua tangan, tangan yang sebelah lebih tinggi dibandingkan tangan yang lain.

2. Tiba-tiba kebingungan dan kesulitan berbicara.

Masalah bahasa adalah salah satu tanda-tanda yang paling umum dari stroke. Seseorang yang mengalami stroke tiba-tiba mungkin akan mengalami masalah ketika mereka bicara. Bahkan, beberapa di antaranya juga mengalami penurunan pemahaman. Mintalah dia (orang yang dicurigai stroke) untuk mengulangi kembali kalimat sederhana kepada Anda, misalnya: "Saya pergi ke toko hari ini." Jika ia mengalami kesulitan mengulangi kata-kata itu bisa jadi dia mengalami stroke.

3. Pengelihatan mendadak terganggu.

Gangguan pengelihatan yang datang secara tiba-tiba merupakan gejala stroke yang umum. Mereka mungkin tidak akan mampu melihat dengan jelas dengan satu mata, atau mungkin mengalami kesulitan untuk melihat ke kanan atau kiri.

4. Tiba-tiba kesulitan berjalan, kehilangan keseimbangan atau koordinasi.

Berjalan seolah-olah mabuk, tersandung, atau bahkan jatuh adalah semua gejala stroke. Tanda-tanda serupa lainnya seperti berjalan dengan kaki terbuka lebar atau tiba-tiba kehilangan kemampuan motorik halus, seperti ketidakmampuan untuk menulis juga patut diwaspadai.

5. Sakit kepala parah tiba-tiba tanpa diketahui penyebabnya.

Gangguan sakit kepala tidak selalu identik dengan gejala stroke. Tetapi, jika sakit kepala menyerang tiba-tiba atau tampak sangat intens, patut untuk diwaspadai. Jika leher kaku, nyeri pada wajah, atau muntah yang disertai sakit kepala bukan tidak mungkin akan menyebabkan terjadinya perdarahan intrakranial, juga dikenal sebagai "stroke merah (red sroke)."



Pengobatan dini dapat mencegah kerusakan yang lebih besar akibat stroke. Salah satu pengobatan umum stroke yaitu dengan tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). Obat ini disuntikkan ke arteri atau vena yang kemudian akan melarutkan sumbatan di pembuluh darah sehingga darah kembali mengalir ke otak.

Stroke merupakan penyakit pemicu kematian yang serius, namun sebenarnya dapat dicegah. Perubahan gaya hidup perlu ditingkatkan guna mengurangi risiko stroke. Berikut beberapa perubahan gaya hidup yang dapat dilakukan :

- Kurangi garam

Mengurangi konsumsi garam dapat menurunkan tekanan darah sehingga mengurangi risiko stroke.

- Konsumsi makanan sehat

Kurangi kolesterol "jahat" dapat meningkatkan kesehatan jantung dan mengurangi risiko stroke. Kadar kolesterol harus di bawah 200 mg/dL.

- Stop merokok

Perokok memiliki risiko stroke dua kali lipat. Merokok dapat merusak pembuluh darah dan meningkatkan tekanan darah, serta mempercepat penyumbatan di pembuluh darah.

- Hidup aktif dan olahraga

Orang yang kelebihan berat badan atau obesitas memiliki risiko yang lebih besar memiliki kadar kolesterol tinggi, hipertensi, diabetes, dan stroke. Olahraga dapat mengurangi berat badan sehingga mengurangi risiko penyakit-penyakit tersebut.

Meskipun telah mengubah gaya hidup, para ahli mengatakan orang yang berusia di atas 55 tahun memiliki risiko yang lebih besar terkena stroke. Selain itu, meskipun stroke lebih umum terjadi di kalangan kaum Adam, namun wanita pun tak terlepas dari risikonya.

Sumber :Healthday News
Editor : Liwon Maulana(galipat)

Imagine an elite professional services firm with a high-performing, workaholic culture. Everyone is expected to turn on a dime to serve a client, travel at a moment’s notice, and be available pretty much every evening and weekend. It can make for a grueling work life, but at the highest levels of accounting, law, investment banking and consulting firms, it is just the way things are.

Except for one dirty little secret: Some of the people ostensibly turning in those 80- or 90-hour workweeks, particularly men, may just be faking it.

Many of them were, at least, at one elite consulting firm studied by Erin Reid, a professor at Boston University’s Questrom School of Business. It’s impossible to know if what she learned at that unidentified consulting firm applies across the world of work more broadly. But her research, published in the academic journal Organization Science, offers a way to understand how the professional world differs between men and women, and some of the ways a hard-charging culture that emphasizes long hours above all can make some companies worse off.

Credit Peter Arkle

Ms. Reid interviewed more than 100 people in the American offices of a global consulting firm and had access to performance reviews and internal human resources documents. At the firm there was a strong culture around long hours and responding to clients promptly.

“When the client needs me to be somewhere, I just have to be there,” said one of the consultants Ms. Reid interviewed. “And if you can’t be there, it’s probably because you’ve got another client meeting at the same time. You know it’s tough to say I can’t be there because my son had a Cub Scout meeting.”

Some people fully embraced this culture and put in the long hours, and they tended to be top performers. Others openly pushed back against it, insisting upon lighter and more flexible work hours, or less travel; they were punished in their performance reviews.

The third group is most interesting. Some 31 percent of the men and 11 percent of the women whose records Ms. Reid examined managed to achieve the benefits of a more moderate work schedule without explicitly asking for it.

They made an effort to line up clients who were local, reducing the need for travel. When they skipped work to spend time with their children or spouse, they didn’t call attention to it. One team on which several members had small children agreed among themselves to cover for one another so that everyone could have more flexible hours.

A male junior manager described working to have repeat consulting engagements with a company near enough to his home that he could take care of it with day trips. “I try to head out by 5, get home at 5:30, have dinner, play with my daughter,” he said, adding that he generally kept weekend work down to two hours of catching up on email.

Despite the limited hours, he said: “I know what clients are expecting. So I deliver above that.” He received a high performance review and a promotion.

What is fascinating about the firm Ms. Reid studied is that these people, who in her terminology were “passing” as workaholics, received performance reviews that were as strong as their hyper-ambitious colleagues. For people who were good at faking it, there was no real damage done by their lighter workloads.

It calls to mind the episode of “Seinfeld” in which George Costanza leaves his car in the parking lot at Yankee Stadium, where he works, and gets a promotion because his boss sees the car and thinks he is getting to work earlier and staying later than anyone else. (The strategy goes awry for him, and is not recommended for any aspiring partners in a consulting firm.)

A second finding is that women, particularly those with young children, were much more likely to request greater flexibility through more formal means, such as returning from maternity leave with an explicitly reduced schedule. Men who requested a paternity leave seemed to be punished come review time, and so may have felt more need to take time to spend with their families through those unofficial methods.

The result of this is easy to see: Those specifically requesting a lighter workload, who were disproportionately women, suffered in their performance reviews; those who took a lighter workload more discreetly didn’t suffer. The maxim of “ask forgiveness, not permission” seemed to apply.

It would be dangerous to extrapolate too much from a study at one firm, but Ms. Reid said in an interview that since publishing a summary of her research in Harvard Business Review she has heard from people in a variety of industries describing the same dynamic.

High-octane professional service firms are that way for a reason, and no one would doubt that insane hours and lots of travel can be necessary if you’re a lawyer on the verge of a big trial, an accountant right before tax day or an investment banker advising on a huge merger.

But the fact that the consultants who quietly lightened their workload did just as well in their performance reviews as those who were truly working 80 or more hours a week suggests that in normal times, heavy workloads may be more about signaling devotion to a firm than really being more productive. The person working 80 hours isn’t necessarily serving clients any better than the person working 50.

In other words, maybe the real problem isn’t men faking greater devotion to their jobs. Maybe it’s that too many companies reward the wrong things, favoring the illusion of extraordinary effort over actual productivity.

How Some Men Fake an 80-Hour Workweek, and Why It Matters

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