Haji adalah ibadah wajib bagi umat Islam yang mampu melaksanakannya, baik mampu secara fisik,mental, maupun finansial.
Menurut para ulama, kewajiban menunaikan ibadah haji dan umrah diterima oleh Rasulullah SAW pada tahun 6 Hijriah/628 Masehi. Untuk menjalankan perintah Allah SWT tersebut, pada tanggai 6 Dzulqa’dah tahun 6 Hijriah, Rasulullah SAW bersama 1.500 pengikutnya bertolak menuju Makkah untuk melaksanakan umrah.
Namun, di tengah perjalanan tepatnya di daerah Hudaibiyah yang berjarak sekitar sembilan mil dari Makkah, mereka dicegat oleh orang- orang kafir. Menghindari pertumpahan darah, kaum muslimin bersedia melakukan perundingan dengan orang-orang kafir.
Dalam perundingan itu, sebuah kesepakatan yang kemudian dikenal dengan Perjanjian Hudaibiyah diteken oleh kedua belah pihak. Salah satu butir dalam isi perjanjian tersebut adalah bahwa kaum muslim tidak diperkenankan melaksanakan ibadah haji tahun itu. Mereka baru diizinkan pada tahun berikutnya, itu pun hanya dalam waktu tiga hari.
Sebelum Rasulullah SAW melakukan ibadah haji, konon beliau sudah pernah melakukan umrah sebanyak empat kali. Demikian diriwayatkan dari Aisyah, Ibnu Umar, dan Anas bin Malik. Umrah pertama dilakukan pada tahun 6 Hijriah/628 Masehi atau dikenal dengan umrah Hudaibiyah.
Umrah kedua dilakukan pada tahun berikutnya, umrah ketiga pada bulan Dzulqa’dah tahun yang sama, dan umrah keempat ketika beliau mengerjakan ibadah haji.
Selain riwayat dari tiga tokoh di atas, ada banyak informasi lain tentang berapa kali Rasulullah SAW menunaikan ibadah. Namun dari berbagai informasi tersebut, pendapat paling sahih menyatakan bahwa Nabi hanya melakukan umrah sebanyak tiga kali.
Umrah pertama dilaksanakan pada tahun 7 Hijriah/629 Masehi, umrah kedua dilakukan pada tahun 8 Hijriah/630 Masehi dan dikenal dengan umrah Dzulqa’dah atau umrah Ji’ranah, dan umrah ketiga terjadi pada tahun 10 Hijriah/632 Masehi, yaitu ketika Nabi mengerjakan Haji Wada’.
Manasik haji yang dikenalkan oleh Rasulullah SAW adalah penyempurna dari manasik haji para nabi sebelumnya, termasuk manasik haji Nabi Ibrahim AS.
Manasik haji yang dikenalkan oleh Rasulullah SAW dapat diuraikan dalam urutan, yaitu: ihram; thawaf; shalat dua rakaat di Maqam Ibrahim; sa’i (berlari-lari kecil) antara bukit Shafa dan Marwah; wukuf di Padang Arafah; bermalam di Muzdalifah; melempar Jumrah Aqabah; menyembelih binatang kurban; melaksanakan thawaf ifadhah; tahallul atau bercukur; mabit atau menginap di Mina; melempar tiga jumrah pada Hari Tasyriq (tanggai 11, 12, dan 13 Dzulhijjah); dan melakukan tawaf wada’ atau tawaf perpisahan.
Sewaktu mengerjakan Haji Wada’ atau haji terakhir, Rasulullah SAW berpesan agar umat Islam mengikuti manasik atau tata cara haji yang beliau contohkan. Manasik haji tidak boleh dimodifikasi sebab ditetapkan secara langsung melalui wahyu Allah SWT.
Demikianlah ritual haji yang disyariatkan kepada Nabi Adam AS, Nabi Ibrahim AS, hingga Nabi Muhammad SAW. Setiap ritual haji yang diturunkan kepada nabi-nabi tersebut mengalami penyempurnaan dan pembersihan dari segala macam pencemaran.
How Some Men Fake an 80-Hour Workweek, and Why It Matters
Imagine an elite professional services firm with a high-performing, workaholic culture. Everyone is expected to turn on a dime to serve a client, travel at a moment’s notice, and be available pretty much every evening and weekend. It can make for a grueling work life, but at the highest levels of accounting, law, investment banking and consulting firms, it is just the way things are.
Except for one dirty little secret: Some of the people ostensibly turning in those 80- or 90-hour workweeks, particularly men, may just be faking it.
Many of them were, at least, at one elite consulting firm studied by Erin Reid, a professor at Boston University’s Questrom School of Business. It’s impossible to know if what she learned at that unidentified consulting firm applies across the world of work more broadly. But her research, published in the academic journal Organization Science, offers a way to understand how the professional world differs between men and women, and some of the ways a hard-charging culture that emphasizes long hours above all can make some companies worse off.
Ms. Reid interviewed more than 100 people in the American offices of a global consulting firm and had access to performance reviews and internal human resources documents. At the firm there was a strong culture around long hours and responding to clients promptly.
“When the client needs me to be somewhere, I just have to be there,” said one of the consultants Ms. Reid interviewed. “And if you can’t be there, it’s probably because you’ve got another client meeting at the same time. You know it’s tough to say I can’t be there because my son had a Cub Scout meeting.”
Some people fully embraced this culture and put in the long hours, and they tended to be top performers. Others openly pushed back against it, insisting upon lighter and more flexible work hours, or less travel; they were punished in their performance reviews.
The third group is most interesting. Some 31 percent of the men and 11 percent of the women whose records Ms. Reid examined managed to achieve the benefits of a more moderate work schedule without explicitly asking for it.
They made an effort to line up clients who were local, reducing the need for travel. When they skipped work to spend time with their children or spouse, they didn’t call attention to it. One team on which several members had small children agreed among themselves to cover for one another so that everyone could have more flexible hours.
A male junior manager described working to have repeat consulting engagements with a company near enough to his home that he could take care of it with day trips. “I try to head out by 5, get home at 5:30, have dinner, play with my daughter,” he said, adding that he generally kept weekend work down to two hours of catching up on email.
Despite the limited hours, he said: “I know what clients are expecting. So I deliver above that.” He received a high performance review and a promotion.
What is fascinating about the firm Ms. Reid studied is that these people, who in her terminology were “passing” as workaholics, received performance reviews that were as strong as their hyper-ambitious colleagues. For people who were good at faking it, there was no real damage done by their lighter workloads.
It calls to mind the episode of “Seinfeld” in which George Costanza leaves his car in the parking lot at Yankee Stadium, where he works, and gets a promotion because his boss sees the car and thinks he is getting to work earlier and staying later than anyone else. (The strategy goes awry for him, and is not recommended for any aspiring partners in a consulting firm.)
A second finding is that women, particularly those with young children, were much more likely to request greater flexibility through more formal means, such as returning from maternity leave with an explicitly reduced schedule. Men who requested a paternity leave seemed to be punished come review time, and so may have felt more need to take time to spend with their families through those unofficial methods.
The result of this is easy to see: Those specifically requesting a lighter workload, who were disproportionately women, suffered in their performance reviews; those who took a lighter workload more discreetly didn’t suffer. The maxim of “ask forgiveness, not permission” seemed to apply.
It would be dangerous to extrapolate too much from a study at one firm, but Ms. Reid said in an interview that since publishing a summary of her research in Harvard Business Review she has heard from people in a variety of industries describing the same dynamic.
High-octane professional service firms are that way for a reason, and no one would doubt that insane hours and lots of travel can be necessary if you’re a lawyer on the verge of a big trial, an accountant right before tax day or an investment banker advising on a huge merger.
But the fact that the consultants who quietly lightened their workload did just as well in their performance reviews as those who were truly working 80 or more hours a week suggests that in normal times, heavy workloads may be more about signaling devotion to a firm than really being more productive. The person working 80 hours isn’t necessarily serving clients any better than the person working 50.
In other words, maybe the real problem isn’t men faking greater devotion to their jobs. Maybe it’s that too many companies reward the wrong things, favoring the illusion of extraordinary effort over actual productivity.